An extremely rare tumor association characterized by dual predisposition to melanoma and neural system tumors (typically astrocytoma). Fewer than 20 affected families have been reported to date. Affected individuals had cutaneous melanoma in association with dysplastic nevi, astrocytoma, benign or malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, neurofibroma, medulloblastoma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, glioma, and meningioma. In some cases, melanoma was described first followed by nervous system tumors, and in other cases, melanoma was a secondary cancer. The etiology of this tumor association is unknown. Genetic mutations or germline deletions are thought to underlie this cancer susceptibility syndrome.